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The birth of Abū ‘l-Ḥasan al-Riḍā عليه السلام


باب مولد أبي الحسن الرضا

 

The birth of Abū ‘l-asan al-Riā عليه السلام

 

 

محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن محبوب، عن هشام بن أحمر قال: قال لي أبو الحسن الاول: هل علمت أحدا من أهل المغرب قدم؟ قلت: لا، قال: بلى قد قدم رجل فانطلق بنا، فركب وركبت معه حتى انتهينا إلى الرجل فإذا رجل من أهل المدينة معه رقيق، فقلت له: اعرض علينا، فعرض علينا سبع جوار، كل ذلك يقول أبو الحسن عليه السلام: لا حاجة لي فيها، ثم قال: اعرض علينا، فقال: ما عندي إلا جارية مريضة فقال له: ما عليك أن تعرضها، فأبى عليه فانصرف، ثم أرسلني من الغد، فقال: قل له: كم كان غايتك فيها فإذا قال كذا وكذا، فقل: قد أخذتها، فأتيته فقال: ما كنت اريد أن أنقصها من كذا وكذا، فقلت: قد أخذتها فقال: هي لك ولكن أخبرني من الرجل الذي كان معك بالامس؟ فقلت رجل من بني هاشم، قال: من أي بني هاشم؟ فقلت: ما عندي أكثر من هذا فقال: اخبرك عن هذه الوصيفة أني اشتريتها من أقصى المغرب فلقيتني امرأة من أهل الكتاب فقالت: ما هذه الوصيفة معك؟ قلت: اشتريتها لنفسي فقالت: ما يكون ينبغي أن تكون هذه عند مثلك إن هذه الجارية أن تكون عند خير أهل الارض، فلا تلبث عنده إلا قليلا حتى تلد منه غلاما ما يولد بشرق الارض ولا غربها مثله، قال: فأتيته بها فلم تلبث عنده إلا قليلا حتى ولدت الرضا عليه السلام.

 

Muammad b. Yayā from Amad b. Muammad from Ibn Mabūb from Hishām b. Amar:

 

He said: Abū ‘l-asan the First said to me: Do you know if anyone from the people of the west has arrived? I said: No. He said: Yes, a man has come; come with us. So he rode and I rode with him until we stopped at the man. He was a man from the people of Madīnah, and with him were slaves [for sale]. I said to him: Present [your cargo] to us. He presented to us seven slave girls. For each one of them, Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام said, “I have no need for her”. He then said: Present [more] to us. So he said: I do not have more, except for an ill slave girl. He said: Why do you not show her to us? He refused; so he (i.e. the Imam) returned. The next day he sent me, and said: Say to him, “How much is your expectation in her?”, and if he says such and such, say, “I will take her”. So I came to him, and he said: I will not accept less than such and such for her. I said: I will take her. He said: She is yours but inform me about the man who was with you yesterday. I said: A man from Banī Hāshim. He said: From which Banī Hāshim? So I said: I do not have more [information] than this. He said: I will tell you about this maid – I bought her in the distant west, and a woman from the Ahl al-Kitāb met me and said, “Who is this maid with you?” and I said, “I bought her for myself”; so she said, “This [girl] should not be with your like – this slave girl should be for the best of the people of the Earth; and she will not remain [alive] with him except briefly, until she she bears from him a boy, the like of whom shall neither have been begotten in the East of the Earth nor its West”. He said: So I gave her to him, and she did not remain with him except briefly – until she gave birth to al-Riā عليه السلام. (al-Kāfi, V. 1, H. 1287)

 

(ṣaḥīḥ) (صحيح)

 

علي بن إبراهيم، عن ياسر الخادم والريان بن الصلت جميعا قال: لما انقضى أمر المخلوع واستوى الامر للمأمون كتب إلى الرضا عليه السلام يستقدمه إلى خراسان، فاعتل عليه أبو الحسن عليه السلام بعلل، فلم يزل المأمون يكاتبه في ذلك حتى علم أنه لا محيص له و أنه لا يكف عنه، فخرج عليه السلام ولابي جعفر عليه السلام سبع سنين، فكتب إليه المأمون: لا تأخذ على طريق الجبل وقم، وخذ على طريق البصرة والاهواز وفارس، حتى وافى مرو، فعرض عليه المأمون أن يتقلد الامر والخلافة، فأبى أبو الحسن عليه السلام، قال: فولاية العهد؟ فقال: على شروط أسألكها، قال المأمون له: سل ما شئت، فكتب الرضا عليه السلام: أني داخل في ولاية العهد؟ على أن لا آمر ولا أنهى ولا افتي ولا أقضي ولا أولي ولا أعزل ولا اغير شيئا مما هو قائم وتعفيني من ذلك كله، فأجابه المأمون إلى ذلك كله، قال: فحدثني ياسر قال: فلما حضر العيد بعث المأمون إلى الرضا عليه السلام يسأله أن يركب ويحضر العيد ويصلي ويخطب، فبعث إليه الرضا عليه السلام قد علمت ما كان بيني وبينك من الشروط في دخول هذا الامر، فبعث إليه المأمون إنما اريد بذلك أن تطمئن قلوب الناس ويعرفوا فضلك، فلم يزل عليه السلام يراده الكلام في ذلك فألح عليه، فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين إن أعفيتني من ذلك فهو أحب إلي وإن لم تعفني خرجت كما خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وأمير المؤمنين عليه السلام، فقال المأمون: اخرج كيف شئت وأمر المأمون القواد والناس أن يبكروا إلى باب أبي الحسن. قال: فحدثني ياسر الخادم أنه قعد الناس لابي الحسن عليه السلام في الطرقات و السطوح، الرجال والنساء والصبيان، واجتمع القواد والجند على باب أبي الحسن عليه السلام فلما طلعت الشمس قام عليه السلام فاغتسل وتعمم بعمامة بيضاء من قطن، ألقى طرفا منها على صدره وطرفا بين كتفيه وتشمر، ثم قال لجميع مواليه: افعلوا مثل ما فعلت ثم أخذ بيده عكازا ثم خرج ونحن بين يديه وهو حاف قد شمر سراويله إلى نصف الساق وعليه ثياب مشمرة، فلما مشى ومشينا بين يديه رفع رأسه إلى السماء وكبر أربع تكبيرات، فخيل إلينا أن السماء والحيطان تجاوبه، والقواد والناس على الباب قد تهيؤوا ولبسوا السلاح وتزينوا بأحسن الزينة، فلما طلعنا عليهم بهذه الصورة وطلع الرضا عليه السلام وقف على الباب وقفة، ثم قال: " الله أكبر، الله أكبر، الله أكبر [ الله أكبر ] على ما هدانا، الله أكبر على ما رزقنا من بهيمة الانعام والحمد لله على ما أبلانا " نرفع بها أصواتنا - قال ياسر: فتزعزعت مرو بالبكاء والضجيج والصياح لما نظروا إلى أبي الحسن عليه السلام وسقط القواد عن دوابهم ورموا بخفافهم لما رأوا أبا الحسن عليه السلام حافيا وكان يمشي ويقف في كل عشر خطوات ويكبر ثلاث مرات قال ياسر: فتخيل إلينا أن السماء والارض والجبال تجاوبه، وصارت مرو ضجة واحدة من البكاء وبلغ المأمون ذلك فقال له الفضل بن سهل ذو الرياستين: يا أمير المؤمنين إن بلغ الرضا المصلى على هذا السبيل افتتن به الناس والرأي أن تسأله أن يرجع فبعث إليه المأمون فسأله الرجوع فدعا أبو الحسن عليه السلام بخفه فلبسه وركب ورجع.

 

`Alī b. Ibrāhīm from Yāsir al-Khādim and al-Rayyān b. al-alt together:

 

He said: When the affair of the deposed Caliph had ended and al-Ma’mūn ascended to the affair, he wrote to al-Riā عليه السلام, asking him to come to Khurāsān. So Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام offered a reason  to him to be excused  but al-Ma’mūn did not cease to write to him regarding that until he (i.e. al-Riā) knew that there was no escape for him and that he (i.e. al-Ma’mūn) would not leave him alone. So he عليه السلام left when Abū Ja`far [the Second] عليه السلام was seven years old. Al-Ma’mūn wrote to him, “Do not travel along the mountain pass or Qum; rather, travel along the path of Bara, al-Ahwāz and Persia”. [He travelled] until he reached Marv. Al-Ma’mūn offered him to assume the Command and the Caliphate, but Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام declined. He [then] said: What about the position of the heir apparent [crown prince]? He said: Only upon the conditions that I will ask of you. Al-Ma’mūn said to him: Ask what you wish. So al-Riā عليه السلام wrote, “That I will be entered for the position of the crown prince on the condition that I will not give any order, nor prohibit, nor decree a fatwa, nor judge, nor appoint, nor dismiss, nor change a thing from what has been established, and that you exempt me from all of that”. So al-Ma’mūn consented to all of that.

 

He said: Yāsir narrated to me: When it was `Īd, al-Ma’mūn sent [a letter] to al-Riā عليه السلام and asked him to ride [there], attend the `Īd, lead the prayers and give a sermon. So al-Riā عليه السلام sent him [a reply stating], “You know the conditions [that were made] between me and you for my entrance in this affair”. Al-Ma’mūn then sent [a letter] to him [saying], “I only want through that to bring comfort to the hearts of the people, and that they may know your merit”. He continued to hold a correspondence with him عليه السلام about that which he desired of him, insisting upon it. So he عليه السلام said, “O commander of the faithful! If you excuse me from that it would be preferred by me, but if you do not excuse me, I will go (i.e. perform it) just as the Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله and Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام did”. Al-Ma’mūn said, “Go as you please”. Al-Ma’mūn ordered the chiefs and the people to set out early [the next morning] to the door of Abū ‘l-asan.

 

He said: Yāsir al-Khādim narrated to me that the people sat [waiting] for Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام in the streets and [on the] roofs – men, women and children, and the chiefs and the army gathered at the door of Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام. When the sun rose, he عليه السلام stood up, performed ghusl and wrapped around a white turban made of cotton. He let one end of it hang over his chest and the other end between his shoulders and tucked it in. He then said to all of his clients: Do as I have done. He then took his staff with his hand. Then, he left – while we were in front of him – barefoot, and his trousers were raised mid-shank, and upon him were [other] clothes, tucked up. When he walked – and we walked in front of him – he raised his head to the sky and said “Allāhu Akbar” four times. To us, it was as if the sky and the walls were resonating with him. The chiefs and the people at the door were ready, armed and embellished in the best ornamentation. When we came out to them in such a fashion with al-Riā عليه السلام, he came to a halt at the door, then said: Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, [Allāhu Akbar] for having guided us; Allāhu Akbar over having granted us sustenance from the cattle. Praise be to Allāh for having granted us blessings. We raised our voices with it.

 

Yāsir said: All of Marv shook with weeping, cries and shouts when they looked at Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام. The chiefs descended from their riding animals and threw away their sandals when they saw Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام barefoot. He would walk and stop at every ten steps, then recite three takbīrāt.

 

Yāsir said: To us, it was as if the sky, the earth and the mountains were resonating with him. Marv had become one [unified] clamour from the crying. Al-Ma’mūn was informed of that; so al-Fal b. Sahl – who held two positions – said to him: O Amīr al-Mu’minīn! If al-Riā reaches the place of prayer in this way, the people will be tempted by him. My opinion is that you should ask him to return. So al-Ma’mūn sent [someone] to ask him to return. Abū ‘l-asan عليه السلام requested his footwear, wore it, mounted and returned. (al-Kāfī, V. 1, H. 1293)

 

(ṣaḥiḥ) (صحيح)

 

الحسين بن محمد، عن معلى بن محمد، عن مسافر، وعن الوشاء، عن مسافر قال: لما أراد هارون بن المسيب أن يواقع محمد بن جعفر قال لي أبو الحسن الرضا عليه السلام: إذهب إليه وقل له: لا تخرج غذا فإنك إن خرجت غدا هزمت وقتل أصحابك فإن سألك من أين علمت هذا، فقل: رأيت في المنام: قال: فأتيته فقلت له: جعلت فداك لا تخرج غدا فإنك إن خرجت هزمت وقتل أصحابك فقال لي: من أين علمت هذا؟ فقلت: رأيت في المنام، فقال: نام العبد ولم يغسل إسته، ثم خرج فانهزم وقتل أصحابه، قال: وحدثني مسافر قال: كنت مع أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام بمنى فمر يحيى بن خالد فغطى رأسه من الغبار فقال: مساكين لا يدرون ما يحل بهم في هذه السنة، ثم قال: وأعجب من هذا هارون وأنا كهاتين - وضم إصبعيه -، قال مسافر: فوالله ما عرفت معنى حديثه حتى دفناه معه.

 

al-usayn b. Muammad from Mu`allā b. Muammad from Musāfir. And from al-Washshā’ from Musāfir.

 

He said: When Hārūn b. al-Musayyib decided to fight Muammad b. Ja`far, Abū ‘l-asan al-Riā عليه السلام said to me: Go to him and say to him, “Do not go out tomorrow. If you go out tomorrow, you will be defeated and your companions will be killed”. If he asks you, “Where did you learn this?”, then say, “I saw it in a dream”. He said: So I came to him and said to him: May I be made your ransom, do not leave tomorrow, for if you leave, you will be defeated and your companions will be killed. He said to me: Where did you learn this? I said: I saw it in a dream. He said: The slave went to sleep without having washed his behind. He then went out and was defeated and his companions were killed.

 

He said: And Musāfir narrated to me. He said: I was with Abū ‘l-asan al-Riā عليه السلام in Minā; Yayā b. Khālid passed by and his head was covered with dust. So he (i.e. the Imām) said: The poor do not know what will happen to them this year. He then said: And stranger than this is [the case] of Hārūn and me, like these two. And he joined two of his fingers [together].

 

Musāfir said: By Allāh, I did not understand the meaning of his statement until we buried him with him (i.e. the Imām and Hārūn) (al-Kāfī, V. 1, H. 1295)

 

(asan) (حسن)

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