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The deity


باب المعبود

The deity


علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن ابن رئاب وعن غير واحد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: من عبد الله بالتوهم فقد كفر ومن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك، ومن عبد المعنى بإيقاع الاسماء عليه بصفاته التي وصف بها نفسه فعقد عليه قلبه ونطق به لسانه في سرائره وعلانيته فأولئك أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام حقا. وفي حديث آخر: اولئك هم المؤمنون حقا.

`Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. `Isa b. `Ubayd from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from ibn Ri’aab and from another person, from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.

He said: Whoever has worshiped Allah by wahm has disbelieved, and whoever has worshiped the name without its meaning has disbelieved. And whoever worshipers the name and the meaning has associated a partner to Allah. Whoever worships the meaning with an understanding that the names point to the attributes that He says are His have firmly tied this to their hearts and have made their tongues speak of it in private and in public – these are the companions of Amir al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام in truth.

And in another hadith: They, certainly, are believers. (al-Kafi, Volume 1, hadith 229)

(sahih) (صحيح)


علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها: الله مما هو مشتق؟ قال: فقال لي: يا هشام الله مشتق من إله والاله يقتضي مألوها والاسم غير المسمى، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد كفر وعبد اثنين، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد أفهمت يا هشام؟ قال: فقلت: زدني قال: إن لله تسعة وتسعين اسما فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الاسماء وكلها غيره، يا هشام الخبز اسم للمأكول والماء اسم للمشروب والثوب اسم للملبوس والنار اسم للمحرق أفهمت يا هشام فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداء نا والمتخذين مع الله عزوجل غيره؟ قلت: نعم، قال: فقال: نفعك الله به وثبتك يا هشام، قال هشام فوالله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى قمت مقامي هذا.

`Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from an-Nadr b. Suwayd from Hisham b. al-Hakam.

He asked Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام about the names of Allah and their derivations: Where is “Allah” derived from? He said: So he said to me: O Hisham, “Allah” is derived from “god” (ilah) and “the god” (al-ilah), that which has a servant (yaqtadi ma’looha). And a name is different from what is described; for whoever worships the name without the meaning has disbelieved and has worshiped nothing. And whoever worships the name and the meaning has disbelieved and has worshiped two things. Whoever worships the meaning without the name – that is monotheism (tawhid). Have you understood, O Hisham? He said: So I said: [Explain] further for me. He said: For Allah there are ninety-nine names; so if each name were a described thing, then each name from it would be a deity. However, Allah is the meaning that these names are indicative to, and they are all something other than Him. O Hisham, “bread” is the name of an edible, “water” is the name of a beverage, “cloth” is the name of what is worn, and “fire” is the name of what burns. Have you understood, O Hisham, with a comprehension that, by which, you can defend [our cause], and struggle against our enemies and those who have taken up [a deity] besides Allah عزوجل? So I said: Yes. He said: So he said: May Allah avail you by it and make you steadfast, O Hisham.

Hisham said: By Allah, no one has overcome me in monotheism (tawhid) till this position I stand at (i.e. till this day). (al-Kafi, Volume 1, hadith 230)

(hasan) (حسن)


علي بن إبراهيم، عن العباس بن معروف، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران قال: كتبت إلى أبي جعفر عليه السلام أو قلت له: جعلني الله فداك نعبد الرحمن الرحيم الواحد الأحد الصمد؟ قال: فقال: إن من عبد الاسم دون المسمى بالاسماء أشرك وكفر و جحد ولم يعبد شيئا بل ا عبد الله الواحد الاحد الصمد المسمى بهذه الاسماء دون الاسماء إن الاسماء صفات وصف بها نفسه.

`Ali b. Ibrahim from al-`Abbas b. Ma`roof from `Abd ar-Rahman b. Abi Najran.

He said: I wrote to Abu Ja`far عليه السلام or I said to him: May Allah make me your ransom, do we worship the Gracious (ar-Rahman), the Merciful (ar-Rahim), the One (al-Wahid), the Only (al-Ahad), the Eternally-Besought of All (as-Samad)? He said: So he said: Whoever has worshiped the name without the one described by the names has associated a partner [with Allah], disbelieved, and renounced [Him]; and he has worshiped nothing. Rather, worship Allah, the One, the Only, the Eternally-Besought of All – the one described by these names – without that names. Names are attributes that He has described Himself by. (al-Kafi, Volume 1, hadith 231)

(sahih) (صحيح)
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