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Fiqh Regarding the Imam


الفقه عن الإمام 

Fiqh Regarding the Imam 


Stoning adulterers and punishing zakat withholders can be done only by the Mahdi 


وبهذا الاسناد، عن أبان بن تغلب قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: دمان في الاسلام حلال من الله عزوجل لا يقضي فيهما أحد بحكم الله حتى يبعث الله عز وجل القائم من أهل البيت عليهم السلام، فيحكم فيهما بحكم الله عزوجل لا يريد على ذلك بينة: الزاني المحصن يرجمه، ومانع الزكاة يضرب رقبته.

And by this isnad from Aban b. Taghlib.

He said: Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: There are two bloods which in Islam are lawful [to shed] from Allah that no one shall give judgement in by the ruling of Allah, until Allah عزوجل sends the Qa'im from the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام; so he shall rule in regards to them by the ruling Allah عزوجل, without wanting evidence upon that: the muhsan fornicator he will stone and the preventer (i.e. withholder) of zakat he will strike his neck.1 (Kamal ad-Deen)

(sahih) (صحيح)


[1] This is the only narration that explicitly makes these punishments exclusive to the Mahdi (or an infallible hujja in general).


Dissimulation and its importance 


محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن محمد ابن مسلم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: كلما تقارب هذا الامر كان أشد للتقية

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad b. Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr1 from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.

He said: As this affair draws closer, dissimulation (taqiyya) will be more intensely needed.2 (al-Kafi)

(muwathaq) (موثق)


محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر قال: سألت أبا الحسن الرضا عن مسألته فأبي وأمسك، ثم قال: لو أعطيناكم كلما تريدون كان شر الكم واخذ برقبة صاحب هذا الامر، قال أبوجعفر عليه السلام: ولاية الله أسرها إلى جبرئيل عليه السلام وأسرها جبرئيل إلى محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وأسرها محمد إلى علي وأسرها علي إلى من شاء الله، ثم أنتم تذيعون ذلك، من ألذي أمسك حرفا سمعه؟ قال أبوجعفر عليه السلام: في حكمة آل داود ينبغي للمسلم أن يكون مالكا لنفسه مقبلا على شأنه عارفا بأهل زمانه فاتقوا الله ولا تذيعوا حديثنا، فلو لا أن الله يدافع عن أوليائه وينتقم لاوليائه من أعدائه، أما رأيت ماصنع الله بآل برمك وماانتقم الله لابي الحسن عليه السلام وقد كان بنو الاشعث على خطرعظيم فدفع الله عنهم بولايتهم لابي الحسن وأنتم بالعراق ترون أعمال هؤلاء الفراعنة وما أمهل الله لهم فعليكم بتقوى الله، ولا تغرنكم] الحياة] الدنيا، ولا تغتروابمن قد امهل له، فكأن الامر قد وصل إليكم.

Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr. He said:

I asked Abu’l Hasan ar-Rida a question, so he refrained silently. Then, he said: If I were to give you all that you want, it would be evil for you and it would take the Patron of this Affair by his neck. Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: The wilaya of Allah was discretely told to Jibra’il عليه السلام, Jibra’il discretely told it to Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله , Muhammad discretely told it to `Ali, and `Ali discretely told it to whoever Allah willed. Then, you publicize it! Who is he that has withheld a letter of that which he had heard? Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: It is in the wisdom of the Family of Dawud. It is necessary for a Muslim to have control over his self, to be attentive to what concerns him, and to have knowledge of the people of his time; so fear Allah and do not publicize our hadith (i.e. to the point of endangering Ahl al-Bayt and their message). Verily, Allah defends His awliyya’ and exacts recompense for His awliyya’ upon His enemies. Have you not seen how Allah dealt with the Family of Barmak, and how He recompensed for Abu’l Hasan عليه السلام when the Banu al-Ash`ath faced the great danger and Allah defended them for their support of Abu’l Hasan عليه السلام? And in Iraq you are aware of the actions of these Pharaohs and the respite that Allah has given to them. So, you must fear Allah, and do not allow the worldly life to deceive you. And do not be confused about those who have been given respite. It is as if the Affair has [almost] arrived to you. (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح)


عنه عن يعقوب عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال عن شعيب العقرقوفي عن ابي حمزة الثمالي قال: قال ابوعبدالله (ع): لن تبقى الارض إلا وفيها منا عالم يعرف الحق من الباطل قال: انما جعلت التقية ليحقن بها الدم، فاذا بلغت التقية الدم فلا تقية، وايم الله لو دعيتم لتنصرونا لقلتم لا نفعل انما نتقى، ولكانت التقية احب اليكم من آبائكم وامهاتكم، ولو قد قام القائم (ع (ما احتاج إلى مسائلتكم عن ذلك ولاقام في كثير منكم من اهل النفاق حد الله

From him from Ya`qub from al-Hasan b. `Ali b. Faddal from Shu`ayb al-`Aqraqufi from Abu Hamza ath-Thumali. He said: 

Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: The Earth will not remain except that there would be an `alim therein who knows the truth from the falsehood. He said: Taqiyya was only made so that blood could thereby be protected. When taqiyya has reached bloodshed, then there is no taqiyya. And betake to Allah; if you called for our support, you would say, “We will not act, because we are in taqiyya”, and it would be that taqiyya is more beloved to you than your own fathers and mothers, and if the Qa’im were to rise he would not need to question you regarding that. And he would establish the hadd of Allah amongst many of you from the people of hypocrisy (Ahl an-Nifaq). (Tahdheeb)

(muwathaq) (موثق)


[1] `Abdullah b. Bukayr was a reliable companion of Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq. He was a Fat`hi narrator and the nephew of the famous Zurara b. A`yan. 

[2] The need for the usage of taqiyya will intensify until the appearance of the Mahdi.


Recite only from the accepted qira’at until the Mahdi brings the codex of `Ali b. Abi Talib 


محمّد بن يعقوب ، عن محمّد بن يحيى ، عن محمّد بن الحسين ، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي هاشم ، عن سالم أبي سلمة قال : قرأ رجل على أبي عبد الله ( عليه السلام ) وأنا أستمع حروفاً من القرآن ليس على ما يقرأها الناس ، فقال أبو عبد الله ( عليه السلام ) : كفّ عن هذه القراءة ، اقرأ كما يقرأ الناس حتّى يقوم القائم ، فاذا قام القائم قرأ كتاب الله على حدّه وأخرج المصحف الذي كتبه علي ( عليه السلام ) ، الحديث.

Muhammad b. Ya`qub from Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from `Abd ar-Rahman b. Abi Hashim from Salim b. Abi Salama.1 

He said: A man recited to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام – and I was listening – some expressions (huruf) from the Qur’an that were not as what the people recite. So Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: Desist from this recitation, recite it as the people recite it until the Qa’im rises. So when the Qa’im rises he will recite the Book of Allah upon its extent and take out the mus`haf which `Ali عليه السلام wrote. 2 (al-Kafi)

(apparently sahih) (صحيح على ظاهر) 


[1] Najashi, ibn Faddal, and Tusi have all considered Salim b. Abi Salama to be reliable, but Tusi also weakens someone of the same name. Khoei argues that the narrator Tusi weakened is a different person.

[2] An Imami can only recite from the accepted qira’at of the Qur’an. Imam `Ali b. Abi Talib collected his own mus`haf, which was passed down to each respective Imam. This hadith does not necessitate tahreef, as the mus`haf may only be a qira’a that we do not yet have access to. 


Forbiddance from saying his name 


أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن يزيد، عن ابن محبوب، عن ابن رئاب عن أبي عبد الله (ع): قال صاحب هذا الامر رجل لا يسميه باسمه إلا كافر.

My father from Sa`d from ibn Yazid from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’aab from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام. 

He said: The Patron of this Affair is a man whom none names by his name except a kafir. (Kamal ad-Deen)

(sahih) (صحيح)


وعن محمد بن عبدالله ومحمد بن يحيى جميعا ، عن عبدالله بن جعفر الحميري ، عن محمد بن عثمان العمري ـ في حديث ـ أنه قال له : أنت رأيت الخلف ؟ قال : اي والله ـ إلى أن قال : ـ قلت : فالاسم ، قال : محرم عليكم أن تسألوا عن ذلك ، ولا أقول هذا من عندي ، فليس لي أن احلل ولا أحرم ، ولكن عنه ( عليه السلام ) فإن الامر عند السلطان ، ان أبا محمد مضى ولم يخلف ولدا ـ الى أن قال : ـ وإذا وقع الاسم وقع الطلب ، فاتقوا الله وامسكوا عن ذلك.


Muhammad b. `Abdillah and Muhammad b. Yahya together from `Abdillah b. Ja`far al-Himyari from Muhammad b. `Uthman al-`Amri – in a hadith1 – it was said to him:

Have you seen the successor? He said: Yes, by Allah – until he said: - I said: And what is his name? He said: It is forbidden from you to ask about this, and do not say this is from me, for I do not have the ability to permit and forbid,2 rather, that is for him عليه السلام. The sultan’s impression is that Abu Muhammad passed away and did not leave behind a son – until he said: And if the name is revealed, then the search for him will be on. So, fear Allah and hold back from that. (Wasa’il ash-Shi`a)

(sahih) (صحيح)


[1] This is a shortened version of the original hadith in al-Kafi.

[2] The ambassador of the Mahdi did not have the authority to permit or forbid things, as he was not a hujja


Dealings of the Mahdi in his minor occultation 


الحسين بن محمد، عن معلى بن محمد قال: سئل العالم عليه السلام كيف علم الله؟ قال: علم وشاء وأراد وقدر وقضى وأمضى، فأمضى ما قضى، وقضى ما قدر، وقدر ما أراد، فبعلمه كانت المشيئة، وبمشيئته كانت الارادة، وبإرادته كان التقدير، وبتقديره كان القضاء، وبقضائه كان الامضاء، والعلم متقدم على المشيئة، والمشيئة ثانية، والارادة ثالثة، والتقدير واقع على القضاء بالامضاء. فلله تبارك وتعالى البداء فيما علم متى شاء، وفيما أراد لتقدير الاشياء، فإذا وقع القضاء بالامضاء فلا بداء، فالعلم في المعلوم قبل كونه، والمشيئة في المنشأ قبل عينه، والاراده في المراد قبل قيامه، والتقدير لهذه المعلومات قبل تفصيلها وتوصيلها عيانا ووقتا، والقضاء بالامضاء هو المبرم من المفعولات، ذوات الاجسام المدركات بالحواس من ذوي لون وريح ووزن وكيل وما دب ودرج من إنس وجن وطير وسباع وغير ذلك مما يدرك بالحواس. فلله تبارك وتعالى فيه البداء مما لا عين له، فإذا وقع العين المفهوم المدرك فلا بداء، والله يفعل ما يشاء، فبالعلم علم الاشياء قبل كونها، وبالمشيئة عرف صفاتها وحدودها وأنشأها قبل إظهارها، وبالارادة ميز أنفسها في ألوانها وصفاتها، وبالتقدير قدر أقواتها وعرف أولها وآخرها، وبالقضاء أبان للناس أماكنها ودلهم عليها، وبالامضاء شرح عللها وأبان أمرها وذلك تقدير العزيز العليم.

al-Husayn b. Muhammad from Mu`alla b. Muhammad

He said: The `Alim عليه السلام1 was asked: How is the knowledge of Allah? He said: He knew, He wanted, He willed, He destined, He measured, He decreed, so He allowed what He measured to occur, and He allowed what He destined to occur, and destined what He willed. From His knowledge was His wish, and from His wish was His will, and from His will was His destination, and from His destination was His measurement, and from His measurement was the decree, and from His decree was the occurrence. Knowledge proceeds before the wish, the wish is second, and the will is third. Measurement happens upon the decree so it may occur. For Allah تبارك وتعالى is bada’ in whatever He knows when He wants, and in the will to measure things.2 So when the decree is issued to occur, there is no bada’. Thus, the knowledge of what is known precedes its existence, the wish of the wished precedes its substance, the will of what is wanted precedes its establishment, and the measuring of these known things precedes their detailing and manifestation into their substance and time. The decree for it to occur is decisive in the actions with the body and what is perceived with the senses, such as that with colour, scent, weight, and measurement, as well as that which walks, crawls, and creeps from the people, the jinn, the birds, the beasts, and others that are comprehended with the senses. So, bada’ happens with Allah تبارك وتعالى in that which has no substance in it. When an understood substance appears, then there is no bada’. And Allah does what He wills. By knowledge, He knows things before they manifest. By the wish, He recognizes their qualities and their limits, and He invents them before they manifest. By the will, He distinguishes them in their colours and qualities. By measurement, He measured their substance and made their beginnings and ends. By the decree, He made the places available to the people and guided them there. By the occurrence, He explained the reasons and made the affairs public. And that is the ability of the Majestic and the Knowing. (al-Kafi)

(maqbool) (مقبول)


علي بن محمد، عن محمد بن صالح قال: كانت لي جارية كنت معجبا بها فكتبت أستأمر في استيلادها، فورد استولدها، ويفعل الله ما يشاء، فوطئتها فحبلت ثم أسقطت فماتت.

`Ali b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Salih

He said: I had a female slave that I was fond of. I wrote to him (i.e. the Qa’im) asking if I could impregnate her. The answer came, “You may impregnate her, but Allah does whatever He wants.” I had intercourse with her and she became pregnant. She had a miscarriage and she died. (al-Kafi)

(hasan kal-sahih) (حسن كالصحيح)


علي بن محمد قال: باع جعفر فيمن باع صبية جعفرية كانت في الدار يربونها، فبعث بعض العلويين وأعلم المشتري خبرها فقال المشتري: قد طابت نفسي بردها وأن لا أرزأ من ثمنها شيئا، فخذها، فذهب العلوي فأعلم أهل الناحية الخبر فبعثوا إلى المشتري بأحد وأربعين دينارا وأمروه بدفعها إلى صاحبها.

`Ali b. Muhammad said:

Ja`far [the Liar]3 was vending, and of that which he sold was a young Ja`fari girl4 who was raised in the house [of Hasan al-`Askari عليه السلام]. An Alid5 appeared and informed the buyer of her. The buyer said: I would be content in returning her without taking her expense back, so take her. The Alid went and informed the people of the Neighbourhood6 of the news, so they sent forty-one dinars to the buyer and ordered him to return her to her owner. (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح)


وعن القاسم بن العلاء قال: ولد لي عدة بنين فكنت أكتب وأسأل الدعاء فلا يكتب إلي لهم بشيء فماتوا كلهم , فلما ولد لي الحسن ابني كتبت أسأل الدعاء فأجبت: يبقى والحمد لله.

And from al-Qasim b. al-`Alaa’.7 

He said: Several boys were born to me, so [each time] I would write [to the Qa’im] and request supplications. He did not write anything regarding them to me, and they all died. When my son al-Hasan was born to me, I wrote [to the Qa’im] and requested supplications. So he answered: He lives, and praise be to Allah. (al-Kafi)

(majhool kal-sahih) (مجهول كالصحيح)


الحسين بن محمد الاشعري قال: كان يرد كتاب أبي محمد عليه السلام في الاجراء على الجنيد قاتل فارس وأبي الحسن وآخر، فلما مضى أبو محمد عليه السلام ورد استيناف من الصاحب لاجراء أبي الحسن وصاحبه ولم يرد في أمر الجنيد بشئ قال: فاغتممت لذلك فورد نعي الجنيد بعد ذلك.

al-Husayn b. Muhammad al-Ash`ari said:

The letters of Abu Muhammad عليه السلام would come regarding the matters related to al-Junayd – who killed Faris – and Abu’l Hasan and others. So when Abu Muhammad عليه السلام passed away, a letter from the Patron came to Abu’l Hasan and his companion to be handled, but there was nothing mentioned concerning the matter of al-Junayd. He (i.e. the narrator) said: I was sorrowful regarding that. Thereafter, the obituary of al-Junayd came.

(sahih) (صحيح)


[1] This is a hadith narrated by the Mahdi during his minor occultation.

[2] Bada’ is the change in divine decree, which Allah may do whenever He wills. 

[3] Ja`far b. `Ali al-Kadhab was the brother of Imam Hasan al-`Askari, and he attained his title after claiming that Imam al-`Askari did not leave behind a successor. According to Shaykh as-Saduq’s Tawqee`at al-Imam as-`Asr, Ja`far b. `Ali repented and his status is like that of the brothers of the prophet Yusuf. And Allah knows best.

[4] A descendant of Ja`far b. Abi Talib. 

[5] A descendant of Imam `Ali b. Abi Talib. 

[6] The headquarters of the trustees of the Mahdi. 

[7] al-Qasim b. al-`Alaa’ is a contemporary of Shaykh al-Kulayni and he receives his praise. He is also one of the few people to have met the Mahdi in his minor occultation. 


Payment of religious dues during the minor occultation 


علي بن محمد، عن سعد بن عبد الله قال: إن الحسن بن النضر وأبا صدام وجماعة تكلموا بعد مضي أبي محمد عليه السلام فيما في أيدي الوكلاء وأرادوا الفحص فجاء الحسن بن النضر إلى أبي الصدام فقال: إني اريد الحج فقال له: أبو صدام أخره هذه السنة، فقال له الحسن [ ابن النضر ]: إني أفزع في المنام ولابد من الخروج وأوصى إلى أحمد بن يعلى بن حماد وأوصى للناحية بمال وأمره أن لا يخرج شيئا إلا من يده إلى يده بعد ظهور، قال: فقال الحسن: لما وافيت بغداد اكتريت دارا فنزلتها فجاء ني بعض الوكلاء بثياب ودنانير وخلفها عندي، فقلت له ما هذا؟ قال هو ما ترى، ثم جاء ني آخر بمثلها وآخر حتى كبسوا الدار، ثم جاء ني أحمد بن إسحاق بجميع ما كان معه فتعجبت وبقيت متفكرا فوردت علي رقعة الرجل عليه السلام إذا مضى من النهار كذا و كذا فاحمل ما معك، فرحلت وحملت ما معي وفي الطريق صعلوك يقطع الطريق في ستين رجلا فاجتزت عليه وسلمني الله منه فوافيت العسكر ونزلت، فوردت علي رقعة أن احمل ما معك فعبيته في صنان الحمالين، فلما بلغت الدهليز إذا فيه أسود قائم فقال: أنت الحسن ابن النضر؟ قلت: نعم، قال: ادخل، فدخلت الدار ودخلت بيتا وفرغت صنان الحمالين وإذا في زاوية البيت خبز كثير فأعطى كل واحد من الحمالين رغيفين واخرجوا وإذا بيت عليه ستر فنوديت منه: يا حسن بن النضر احمد الله على ما من به عليك ولا تشكن، فود الشيطان أنك شككت، وأخرج إلي ثوبين وقيل: خذها فستحتاج إليهما فأخذتهما وخرجت، قال سعد: فانصرف الحسن بن النضر ومات في شهر رمضان وكفن في الثوبين. 

`Ali b. Muhammad from Sa`d b. `Abdillah. 

He said: al-Hasan b. an-Nadr, Abu Sidam, and a group of people spoke after the passing of Abu Muhammad عليه السلام regarding that which was in the hands of the trustees and they wanted to examine [who it should be given to]. So al-Hasan b. an-Nadr went to Abu Sidam and said: I want to perform Hajj. So Abu Sidam said to him: Postpone it this year. Al-Hasan b. an-Nadr said to him: I am having nightmares in my dreams and I must leave. He deputed Ahmad b. Ya`li b. Hamad and allotted money to the Neighbourhood, and he ordered that nothing is removed from it except from the hand [of the trustee] to the hand [of the Imam] after the appearance. He said: So al-Hasan said: When I arrived at Baghdad, I rented a house. So one of the trustees came to me with clothes and dinars and left them with me. So I said to him: What is this? He said: It is what you see. Others later came to me with other similar things to it, and others; until the house was filled. Then Ahmad b. Is`haq came with all that was with him. I was astonished and remained thinking. Then a letter came to me from the man عليه السلام [that said], “When such and such [hours] pass from the day, take what is with you”. I then went and carried what was with me, and on the road was a highway robber with sixty men. I passed him and Allah protected me from him, so I arrived at the garrison and stopped there. A letter came to me [that instructed me] to “carry what is with you”. So I loaded everything into the carriages of the porters. When I reached the corridor, a black man was standing there, and he said: Are you al-Hasan b. an-Nadr? I said: Yes. He said: Enter. So I entered the house, and I entered a room, and I unloaded the goods from the carriages of the porters. There was a large quantity of bread at the corner of the room, and he gave two loaves of bread to each of the porters and told them to leave. And I found that there was a room behind the curtain, and someone called me therefrom [saying]: O Hasan b. an-Nadr, praise Allah for the favour that He has done for you and do not complain. Satan loves that you doubt. He then gave me two sheets and said: Take these, for you will need them. So I took them and left. 

Sa`d said: al-Hasan b. Nadr came back and died in the month of Ramadan. He was shrouded in the two sheets. (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح)


علي بن محمد قال: أوصل رجل من أهل السواد مالا فرد عليه وقيل له: أخرج حق ولد عمك منه وهو أربعمائة درهم وكان الرجل في يده ضيعة لولد عمه، فيها شركة قد حبسها عليهم، فنظر فإذا الذي لولد عمه من ذلك المال أربعمائة درهم فأخرجها وأنفذ الباقي فقبل. 

`Ali b. Muhammad said: 

A man from Bedouins sent a certain quantity of commodity (i.e. as religious dues) but it was returned to him and he was told, “Pay first the rights of the children of your uncle. It is four hundred dirhams.” The property of the children of his uncle was in his possession in sharing manner and he had withheld their property. When he did the accounting, their rights in that shared property was four hundred dirhams. He paid that amount and sent the rest [to the Qa’im] and it was accepted. (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح)


علي بن محمد، عن محمد بن صالح قال: لما مات أبي وصار الامر لي، كان لابي على الناس سفاتج من مال الغريم، فكتبت إليه اعلمه فكتب: طالبهم واستقض عليهم، فقضاني الناس إلا رجل واحد كانت عليه سفتجة بأربعمائة دينار فجئت إليه اطالبه فماطلني واستخف بي ابنه وسفه علي، فشكوت إلى أبيه فقال: وكان ماذا؟ فقبضت على لحتيه وأخذت برجله وسحبته إلى وسط الدار وركلته ركلا كثيرا، فخرج بانه يستغيث بأهل بغداد ويقول: قمي رافضي قد قتل والدي، فاجتمع علي منهم الخلق فركبت دابتي وقلت أحسنتم يا أهل بغداد تميلون مع الظالم على الغريب المظلوم، أنا رجل من أهل همدان من أهل السنة وهذا ينسبني إلى أهل قم والرفض ليذهب بحقي ومالي، قال: فمالوا عليه وأرادوا أن يدخلوا على حانوته حتى سكنتهم وطلب إلي صاحب السفتجة وحلف بالطلاق أن يوفيني مالي حتى أخرجتهم عنه. 

`Ali b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Salih. He said: 

When my father died and the affair (i.e. the task of representing the Imam) became mine, my father was in possession of promissory notes from those who owed their dues. So I wrote to him (i.e. the Qa’im) regarding it, and he wrote: “Demand from them [their dues] and take it from them”. So the people gave me what they had owed except for one man, upon whom was a promissory note owing four hundred dinars. So I went to demand from him, but his son procrastinated, took it lightly, and behaved foolishly regarding it. I complained to his father and he said: And so what? I then held him by his beard and took him by his leg, and pulled him to the centre of his house and kicked him many times. His son went out to seek help from the people of Baghdad, saying: A Qummi rejectionist (rafidi) has killed my father! The beings gathered around me, so I mounted my beast (i.e. a riding animal) and I said: Bravo, O people of Baghdad, you have sided with the oppressor against the oppressed stranger – I am a Sunni man from the people of Hamadan, and he attributes me to the people of Qum and rejectionism (rafd) so that he can take away my rights and my money. He said: So they sided against him and they wanted to enter his store until I calmed them down. The owner of the promissory note called me and swore that he would divorce [his wife] if he does not pay me his dues in order for me to get them out of it (i.e. ask the people to leave his store). (al-Kafi)

(hasan kal-sahih) (حسن كالصحيح)


علي بن محمد قال: حمل رجل من أهل آبة شيئا يوصله ونسي بآبة فأنفذ ما كان معه فكتب إليه ما خبر السيف الذي نسيته 

`Ali b. Muhammad said: 

A man from the people of Abah was carrying items to give [as religious dues] and he forgot a sword in Abah. So he delivered what was with him and it was written to him [by the Qa’im]: “What about the sword that you forgot?” (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح) 


علي بن محمد قال: كان ابن العجمي جعل ثلثه للناحية وكتب بذلك وقد كان قبل إخراجه الثلث دفع مالا لابنه أبي المقدام، لم يطلع عليه أحد فكتب إليه فأين المال الذي عزلته لابي المقدام؟ 

`Ali b. Muhammad said: 

ibn al-`Ajami set one third [of his property] for the Neighbourhood and he had written about it. Before he took out the one third [from his property], he gave money to his son Abu’l Miqdam – no one saw him [do this]. So he (i.e. the Qa’im) wrote to him: “Where is the money that you took out for Abu’l Miqdam?” (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح) 


The Mahdi protected his followers in the minor occultation 


علي بن محمد قال: خرج نهي عن زيارة مقابر قريش والحير، فلما كان بعد أشهر دعا الوزير الباقطائي فقال له: الق بني الفرات والبرسيين وقل لهم: لا يزوروا مقابر قريش فقد أمر الخليفة أن يتفقد كل من زار فيقبض. 

`Ali b. Muhammad said:

A prohibition from visiting the Quraysh cemetery and al-Hayri (i.e. Karbala’) came out [from the Qa’im]. After a few months, the vizier (i.e. Abu’l Fat`h Ja`far b. Furat) summoned al-Baqata’iyya and said to him: Meet the Banu Furat and the Bursiyyeen and tell them not to visit the Quraysh cemetery, as the Caliph ordered the investigation of all those who visit so they may be seized. (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح)


Fasting until his appearance 


علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن كرام قال: قلت لابي عبد الله (عليه السلام): إني جعلت على نفسي أن أصوم حتى يقوم القائم (عليه السلام) فقال: صم ولا تصم في السفر العيدين ولا أيام التشريق ولا اليوم الذي يشك فيه من شهر رمضان 

`Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from ibn Abi `Umayr from Karaam.

He said: I said to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام: I have set upon myself fasting until the rising of the Qa’im عليه السلام. So he said: Fast, and do not fast whilst travelling [or during the?] two Eids, nor the days of tashreeq, nor the Day of Doubt in the month of Ramadan. (al-Kafi)

(muwathaq) (موثق)


[1] Karaam b. `Amr was a reliable Waqifi narrator and a companion of Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq and Imam Musa al-Kadhim.


The Imam will dress ascetically

أحمد بن محمد، عن محمد بن يحيى، عن حماد بن عثمان قال: كنت حاضرا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام إذ قال له رجل: أصلحك الله ذكرت أن علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام كان يلبس الخشن، يلبس القميص بأربعة دراهم وما أشبه ذلك ونرى عليك اللباس الجيد؟ قال: فقال له: إن علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام كان يلبس ذلك في زمان لا ينكر ولو لبس مثل ذلك اليوم لشهر به فخير لباس كل زمان لباس أهله غير أن قائمنا إذا قام لبس لباس علي عليه السلام وساربسيرته 

[Muhammad b. Yahya from] Ahmad b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Yahya from Hamad b. `Uthman. 

He said: I was attending to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام and a man said to him: May Allah keep you, you have mentioned that `Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام used to dress ascetically, he wore a shirt worth four dirhams and close to that [in price], but we see that you dress in perfect attire? He said to him: Verily `Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام used to wear that in an age when that [type of dress] was not frowned upon, and if you were to dress like that in our days you would become infamous for it, so the best clothing of every period is the clothing of the people [of that period]. However, when our Qa’im rises, he will dress in similar clothes to `Ali عليه السلام, and he will walk in his path (i.e. follow his way). (al-Kafi)

(sahih) (صحيح) 


Payment of religious dues 


محمد بن علي بن محبوب عن محمد بن الحسين عن الحسن ابن محبوب عن عمر بن يزيد قال: سمعت رجلا من أهل الجبل يسال ابا عبدالله عليه السلام عن رجل اخذ أرضا مواتا تركها أهلها فعمرها واكرى انهارها وبنى فيها بيوتا وغرس فيها نخلا وشجرا قال: فقال ابوعبدالله عليه السلام: كان أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يقول: من احيا ارضا من المؤمنين فهي له وعليه طسقها يؤديه إلى الامام في حال الهدنة، فاذا ظهر القائم عليه السلام فليوطن نفسه على أن تؤخذ منه. 

Muhammad b. `Ali b. Mahbub from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from `Umar b. Yazid. 

He said: I heard a man from the inhabitants of the mountain ask Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام about a man who took hold of a lifeless [piece of] land whose people had forsaken it. He cultivated it and let out its rivers, constructed houses on it and planted date-palms and trees therein. So he said: Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام used to say: Whoever of the believers enlivens the earth, it is for him and its land tax is upon him. He is to convey it to the Imam during the intermission (al-hudna).1 So when the Qa'im عليه السلام appears, he will undertake it himself that it (i.e. the tax) had been taken from him. (Tahdheeb)

(sahih) (صحيح) 


محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن محبوب، عن عمر بن يزيد قال رأيت مسمعا بالمدينة وقد كان حمل إلى أبي عبدالله (عليه السلام) تلك السنة مالا فرده أبوعبدالله (عليه السلام) فقلت له: لم رد عليك أبي عبدالله المال الذي حملته إليه؟ 

قال: فقال لي: إني قلت له حين حملت إليه المال: إني كنت وليت البحرين الغوص فأصبت أربعمائة ألف درهم وقد جئتك بخمسها بثمانين ألف درهم وكرهت أن أحبسها عنك وأن أعرض لها وهي حقك الذي جعله الله تبارك وتعالى في أموالنا، فقال: أو ما لنا من الارض وما أخرج الله منها إلا الخمس يا أبا سيار؟ إن الارض كلها لنا فما أخرج الله منها من شئ فهو لنا، فقلت له: وأنا أحمل إليك المال: كله؟ 

فقال: يا أبا سيار قد طيبناه لك وأحللناك منه فضم إليك مالك، وكل ما في أيدي شيعتنا من الارض فهم فيه محللون حتى يقوم قائمنا فيجبيهم طسق ما كان في أيديهم ويترك الارض في أيديهم وأما ما كان في أيدي غيرهم فإن كسبهم من الارض حرام عليهم حتى يقوم قائمنا، فيأخذ الارض من أيديهم ويخرجهم صغرة. 

قال عمر بن يزيد: فقال لي أبوسيار: ما أرى أحدا من أصحاب الضياع ولا ممن يلي الاعمال يأكل حلالا غيري إلا من طيبوا له ذلك. 

Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from `Umar b. Yazid. He said: 

I saw Abu Sayyar Masma` b. `Abd al-Malik in Medina, and he was carrying money to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام during that year. Then, he (i.e. the Imam) returned it to him; so I asked him: Why did Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام return the money that you carried to him? He said: When I carried the money to him, I said to him: While I was diving, I discovered four hundred thousand dirhams, so I came with its khums – eighty thousand dirhams – and I hated to keep it from you or take from it while it is your right that Allah تبارك وتعالى has given you from our wealth. So he said: Is there nothing for us of the Earth and of what Allah brings forth from it other than the khums?! The Earth wholly is for us, so whatever Allah brings from it, it is ours. He said: I said to him: Should I bring all of the wealth to you? So he said to me: O Abu Sayyar, we have allowed it for you and made [a share] from it halal for you, so take your money for yourself.2 And [as for] all of that which is in the hands of our Shi`a from the Earth, they are at liberty with respect to it. That is halal for them until the rise of our Qa’im; so he will collect the tax of what is in their hands and he will leave the Earth in their hands (i.e. he will let them have possession of the land). And as for what is in the hands of the others (i.e. non-Shi`a), their earning from the Earth is haram upon them until our Qa’im rises. Then he will take the land from their hands and leave them in a state of subjugation (or, humiliation).

`Umar b. Yazid said: So Abu Sayyar said to me: I did not know of anyone from the owners of the estates, nor of those who did labour, who would eat of halal other than myself– save whom that had been allowed for (i.e. the Shi`a). (al-Kafi

(sahih) (صحيح)


وعنه، عن مسعدة بن زياد، عن جعفر، عن أبيه: أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أمر بالنزول على أهل الذمة ثلاثة أيام وقال: " إذا قام قائمنا اضمحلت القطائع فلا قطائع 

And from him from Mas`ada b. Ziyad3 from Ja`far from his father.

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله ordered the descent upon the Protected People (Ahl adh-Dhimma) for three days4 and said: When our Qa’im rises, appropriations [of property] will lessen until there are no appropriations.5 (Qurb al-Isnad)

(muwathaq) (موثق)


[1] This word can also mean “truce” or “cessation”, and it refers to the occultation. The religious dues are to be paid to the representatives of the Hidden Imam in this time.

[2] In this hadith, the Imam demonstrates that although he has rights to the entire Earth, Allah has only obligated his followers to give a portion of their wealth to the Imam. 

[3] Mas`ada b. Ziyad is a reliable Sunni companion of Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq. 

[4] “Descent upon the Protected People” refers to the attacking of or disembarking upon the Christians and Jews of the Arabian Peninsula with the purpose of collecting the jizya

[5] The appropriations were a set percentage that the Prophet or a Caliph would annex from a property in return for the people’s safety. This hadith implies that the jizya – or at least this particular form of it – would disappear under the rule of the Mahdi. 


The Mahdi will expose two men 


علي بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، عن حنان بن سدير، ومحمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد عن محمد بن إسماعيل، عن حنان بن سدير، عن أبيه قال: سألت أبا جعفر (ع) عنهما فقال: يا أبا الفضل ما تسألني عنهما فوالله ما مات منا ميت قط إلا ساخطا عليهما وما منا اليوم إلا ساخطا عليهما يوصي بذلك البير منا الصغير، إنهما ظلمانا حقنا ومنعانا فيئنا وكانا أول من ركب أعناقنا وبثقا علينا بثقا في الاسلام لا يسكر ابدا حتى يقوم قائمنا أو يتكلم متكلمنا 

ثم قال: أما والله لو قد قام قائمنا [أ] وتكلم متكلمنا لابدى من امورهما ما كان يكتم ولكتم من امورهما ما كان يظهر والله ما أسست من بلية ولا قضية تجري علينا أهل البيت إلا هما أسسا أولها فعليمهما لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين 

`Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Hannan b. Sadeer. And Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isma`il from Hannan b. Sadeer from his father.1 

He said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام about the two,2 so he said: O Abu al-Fadl, do not ask me about those two because, by Allah, none among us ever dies without being discontented with them, and till this day there is none among us but that he is discontented with them. The elder from among us bequeaths this tradition to the younger. Verily they suppressed our right and prohibited us from it, and they were the first to mount our necks and transgress upon us. Transgression in Islam will never cease until our Qa’im rises or our Speaker speaks.

He then said: But by Allah, if our Qa’im arose and our Speaker spoke, the hidden affairs of the two would be revealed, and their apparent issues would be hidden.3 By Allah, no affliction or trouble harms us, the Ahl al-Bayt, except that those two are its root cause, so may the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people be upon them. (al-Kafi)

(hasan) (حسن) 


[1] Sadeer as-Sayrafi was a companion of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq. He narrates in Tafsir al-Qummi and his narrations were considered reliable in Mir’at al-`Uqool.

[2] The first two Rashidun Caliphs. 

[3] Their reputations will be destroyed and what is unknown about them will be exposed.

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